Introduction

Based on the numerous cases of earth tremors that has been rocking most of the urban centers across the globe, there has been the increased need to utilize systems that are resistant to the effects of earthquakes.  Between the 15th and 20th Centuries, most of the urban planning was dogged with strong earthquakes that helped in the modification of the figurative and historical features of such buildings and then submitted them to empirical and technical analyses (Tahami et al. 5). Most of the studies have been conducted through seismic analysis on both the yards of the buildings and the available resources in the architectural field.

Technologies used in Designing Buildings Against Seismic Activities

There is a heated debate on right materials and structures to be used in the realization of strong buildings that can resist the acts of earthquake. The importance of architecture and engineering practices can be employed to help buffer the seismic events, and are increasingly becoming relevant in the society. The primary principles in seismic structural and design for earthquakes include base-isolating figures, reinforced foundations that can absorb the shock waves, lightweight materials used in the construction sector, and the tuned-mass dampers (Peckens, Ireana and Camille 4).  With the increased need for architects to design newer structures in the earthquake prone locations, most buildings incorporate principles in the engineering sector alongside support systems that would blend contemporary designs with principles that are sensitive to the seismic events. Unlike the common steel and glass skyscrapers in most urban areas, the decorative red mud brick envelopes the inner structures that could be used in the protection against earthquakes for all seasons. This practice is mostly common in China and does more than the provision of vernacular aesthetic values linked to such buildings. The application includes a roof structure combined with concrete column with mud brick filled walls to help create a hybrid that would satisfy the earthquake resistance in prone areas.

Another technique used in the construction of structures resistant to earthquakes involves the construction of a building on top of a V-shaped concrete foundation approximately 1.5 meters above the ground. The foundation helps in absorbing the effects of the earthquake on the building (Khamparia and Karan 3). This gesture then creates a durable home with some kind of industrial and sleek design that has the capacity of resisting most of the seismic activities. An example of such a construction is the Television House in Osaka, Japan. There is also the development of strong buildings using steel frames as one seen in 440 house in California where the architects utilized the midcentury modernism where the house is exposed to a steel moment frame (Tahami et al. 7). The frame is made up of thin beams and columns that help in providing the lateral support during the earthquake and helps in protecting the house during active seismic activities in the region that is highly volatile to the cases of earthquakes.

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The landscape in San Francisco is dogged with lots of steep infrastructure that needs clear design in the buildings to help prevent the effects of the earthquake in the region. For instance, the University of California, dealing in development biology and stem cell research, is an example of a design to prevent earthquakes. The building in this institution is horizontally organized on a high steep slope that is strongly supported by the space trusses that rest on the concrete piers (Peckens, Ireana and Camille 8). The structure act as the seismic base isolation system used in absorbing the forces of earthquake while also promoting the larger connectivity across various departments in the university.

Based on the seismic activities in Tokyo, Japan, SA house was developed through the use of atelier A5 installed braces of iron plate at the back of each of the floor spandrel walls and some specially designed furniture. The effects of the earthquake are reduced on the upper floors in the building Khamparia, Aditya, and Karan Mehtab Singh. The height of each level’ spandrel wall may vary to help in the provision of privacy from the street. In China, the Sliced Porosity Block utilizes the diagonal beams that tend to slice the geometric grid of the residential block in Chengdu. The diagonal braces help in the provision of support in the event of an earthquake in the region. Geothermal cooling and heating is provided by the white concrete structures. The architectural designs also help in the collection of rainwater to bring a new icon for the city dwellers (Ali et al. 120) In Greece, Bioclimatic Residence has been built with sustainable features with alternating heating systems and other cantilevered shading systems, to help improve the ventilation process in the building. Such designs are aimed at resisting the seismic actions within the earthquake prone region. With the reinforced base and lightweight construction, the metallic paneled house brings out an aesthetic value to the overall system. It also has the ability to resist most of the earthquakes taking place in the city.

There are some ethical concerns to the role of the architects in designing structures that are resistant to the seismic effects to the buildings. The architects are bestowed with the responsibility of informing users on the vulnerability of the structures in the event an earthquake occurs. Therefore, architects must take the issues linked to safety in the buildings very seriously. There is also the need to provide the psychological security in the overall process (Dickinson 15). This gesture calls for the engineers to develop slender columns that are bulked with non-structural materials to help create the strong structures that can resist the effects of earthquake in the regions that are prone to the calamity.

Conclusion

In summary, very little studies remain to be a reality in the making. The main is associated with lack of building and technical expertise that used in producing structures that can restrict earthquakes, in different parts of the world.  Most of these issues have been misunderstood due to the different culture renovations in the overall system. It is important to note that these changes have been used in a different way to the overall past. Such conventional methods preceded the timely fashion thus replacing the irreparable damages and thus helps in reinforcing the efficient sections without altering the substances obtained from the factory.

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